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There have been several metallurgical test studies completed on the massive quartz from the Snow White Main Zone to support the conclusion that it is ultra high in silica and low in impurities such as aluminum, calcium, iron, phosphorous, and titanium.  The low levels of impurities identified from each of the tests are reported to be within the thresholds permissive to the production of Metallurgical Grade (MG) silicon.


Tests conducted on Snow White quartz include a bulk sample for Rapier Resources in 2000 completed by Globe Metallurgical in Niagara Falls, New York, USA; two bulk samples for Verbina in 2008-2009 implemented by Sitec at Becancour, Quebec, Canada; and two bucket-sized samples for Rogue Resources in 2017 as part of their property acquisition due diligence, completed by Dorfner ANZAPLAN in Hirschau, Germany (ANZAPLAN, 2017).

In 2000, Rapier delivered an 846.394 MT bulk sample to Globe Metallurgical Inc. in Niagara Falls, New York, for metallurgical testing. They also reported that 142.937 MT of fines were delivered elsewhere and were not reported in Globe Metallurgical Inc. (2001). Globe ran the Snow White silica for 30 days in their plant.

Globe reported no problems with their decrepitation test, and their furnace test of the bulk sample indicated that the Snow White material yielded good quality silicon metal and met their stringent purity criteria (Globe Metallurgical Inc., 2001).  They assessed the impurities of the shipments of Snow White quartz through both truck and bin sampling.  Both sets of data indicate impurity levels superior to those required in their furnace for MG silicon production.  The bin data reported in Globe Metallurgical Inc. (2001), along with their threshold values for impurity levels of select elements, are presented in Table 1. They do not provide specifications of the analytical methodology, nor the specifics of how the bin sampling was undertaken, but the fact that they ran the Snow White quartz in isolation in their furnace for a month and yielded “good quality silicon metal” is a positive result.

Additional chemical analyses conducted by Globe Metallurgical were found in Rapier Resources Inc. (2000), but the details on the sampling and analytical methodology were not discussed.  It is speculated that these data are from samples derived from the blast holes drilled to extract the bulk sample, but no corroborating information has been ascertained, and the data is being shelved for future reference should more information comes to light.

Table 1 - Globe Metallurgy Inc. Bin Sample Results

In the fourth quarter of 2008, Verbina Resources Inc. mined and processed a 3,000 tonne bulk sample that was then trucked by Sitec s.e.c to Becancour, Quebec for metallurgical testing (Verbina Resources Inc., 2009).  A follow-up 2,300 tonne bulk sample was tested in Becancour in 2009 (Verbina Resources Inc., 2010).  The detailed results of these tests were not publicly disclosed, however Verbina Resources Inc. (2010) reported that Sitec found the material had met its required specifications, but required an additional sample to assess the material for new purity level requirements.  Verbina reported that Sitec indicated the results of the second bulk sample were positive with regard to the new required levels of impurity for certain elements, and again, no details of the bulk sampling work were identified, such as analytical results, impurity levels, sampling methodology, nature of bulk sample testing.

Two 25 kg buckets of quartz samples were collected from the blasted rock stockpiles at the Property by Paul Davis, VP Technical, and Director for Rogue Resources as part of their property acquisition due diligence procedures.   Laboratory-scale thermal stability tests were conducted on the samples at the Dorfner ANZAPLAN laboratory in Hirschau, Germany to provide an indication of the suitability of the quartz samples for MG silicon production.  Chemical analyses were conducted to indicate the levels of impurities in the quartz samples, which are required to be within certain specified threshold values for MG silicon production.

ANZAPLAN (2017) report that their sample preparation methodology for assessment of impurities in silica is a proprietary process, and the details are not presented here.  The reported analysis by ICP is a standard methodology for trace level element analysis.  As detailed in Table 2, ANZAPLAN (2017) indicated that both samples show a chemical purity well within, or superior to, the range of typical quartz compositions for MG silicon production.

Table 2 - ANZAPLAN (2017) Impurities Test - ICP Analysis

Additionally, ANZAPLAN conducted thermal stability and heat index tests which are utilized to determine the quality of the quartz for MG silicon production.  Briefly, the sample is heated to 1,300 oC for one hour, and then cooled to room temperature.  The particle size distribution is then examined to yield a heat index value, after which the sample is tumbled, particle size distribution is re-examined, and a thermal strength index value is determined.  The heat index value is measured as the percentage of material left in its original size >20 mm after heating and before tumbling.  The thermal strength index is defined by a more robust examination of particle size after tumbling, represented by the formula:

TSI = { %(20-25mm)+ %(10-25mm)+ %(4-25mm)+ %(2-25mm) } / 4

The results of the thermal testing are detailed in Table 3. The test results categorized the Snow White quartz material as Good.

Table 3 - Thermal Stability and Heat Index Test Result – ANZAPLAN (2017)


ANZAPLAN (2017): dorfner ANZAPLAN Thermal stability test and ICP analysis, Bucket rock samples BRS 1 and BRS 2 from Canada, Report of laboratory test results, 211613095, for Rogue Resources Inc., November 21, 2017, 15p.

Globe Metallurgical Inc, (2001): Performance Evaluation of Snow White High-Purity Quartz to Produce Commercial Silicon Metal, Supplied by Rapier Resources.  In: Mining Claims 1229647, 1231116, & 1231115, Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Assessment File (2005) 20000000953 2.31022, 17p.

Rapier Resources Inc. (2000): Snow White High-Purity Quartz Deposit, Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Assessment File (2001) 41J08SW2001 2.20761, 24p.

Verbina Resources Inc. (2009): October 2009 Letter to Shareholders, Winter, LDS. Posted on

Verbina Resources Inc. (2010): Management’s Discussion and Analysis, three and six months ending March 31, 2010, posted on SEDAR May 31, 2010, 15p.

Globe Metallurgical (2001, modified from Table 2).png
ICP Analyses - Anzaplan (2017).png
Thermal Testing - Anzaplan (2017).png
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