Geology and Mineralization

The property area is regionally situated within a broad suite of intermediate intrusive granodioritic to tonalitic rocks attributed to the Archean aged Ramsey-Algoma Granitoid Suite (2690 to 2670 Ma) (Easton, 2013).  These rocks are cross-cut by Proterozoic diabase dyke swarms, typically trending northwest-southeast, and one of the numerous mafic dykes cross-cutting the Snow White property has been identified as part of the Matachewan swarm, dated 2473-2446 Ma.  The recently staked northern portion of the property position is interpreted to be underlain by the southern margin of the Archean-aged Whiskey Lake Greenstone Belt (Easton, 2013), a 40 km long by 10 km wide, metamorphosed Archean greenstone belt that has been explored for various commodities including uranium, copper, zinc, nickel, platinum, palladium, and gold.

The Snow White Silica deposit was discovered during regional reconnaissance mapping by government geologists (Robertson and Johnson, 1965).  It is interpreted to be an Archean-aged composite quartz vein precipitated along a north-south trending structure within the host granitoids, both of which are cross-cut by north-west trending early Proterozoic mafic dykes.  The quartz mineralization is identified intermittently over at least a 700 metre strike length (Verbina Resources Inc., 2010).  Diamond drilling along 200 metres of the Main Zone, reported in Winter et al. (2010), indicates that the deposit is a 020 degrees striking composite zone of quartz veins intruding the host granitoid, with a massive quartz vein at the core of the structure. The massive quartz vein was interpreted from drilling results to vary in true thickness in the core area between 10-28 metres, crosscut by several near-vertical diabase dikes.  The high silica massive core is flanked by a transitional zone on both the east and west margins, which comprises multiple phases of quartz veining with granitoid restite or raft inclusions.  The transition zone was identified to be varying from a few metres to tens of metres thick locally.

The high silica massive quartz core of the Main Zone has been identified in assays (Winter et al., 2010) and in metallurgical work (Globe Metallurgical Inc., 2001; Verbina Resources Inc., 2010; ANZAPLAN,  2017) to be nearly pure silica, and very low in impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, iron, phosphorous and titanium. 


Future exploration work on the property will focus on the extension of the near surface quartz zones identified on the Snow White Property.  To date, 3 zones have been identified on the property including the Main Zone, the Mirror Zone and the recently discovered Pure White Zone. 

The Mirror Zone, located approximately 300 metres southwest of the Main Zone, was stripped of overburden in the past to expose the quartz mineralization.  The quartz mineralization is similar in appearance to the Main Zone, separated by northwest trending diabase dykes of varying width.  No recent analytical samples have been taken of the Mirror Zone and future exploration would look at mapping the area in detail and completing systematic channel samples of the quartz zones for submission for analysis.  Contingent on results, follow up diamond drilling may be completed on the Mirror Zone to confirm the extent of the quartz mineralization at depth.

Work completed by the Company in 2018 identified high purity quartz on the southern edge of the aggregate permit approximately 1,000 metres south of the Main Zone.  Analysis by ALS Global of a selected grab sample taken from the Pure White Zone reported 99.59% SiO2, 0.08% Al, 0.037% Fe, 0.005% Ti, 0.01% Ca and 0.001% P, meeting the specifications required for the production of Metallurgical Grade Silicon (Rogue Press Release, July 30, 2018).  Follow up exploration will include mapping and sampling of the quartz exposures, mechanical stripping of the quartz zones, channel sampling and analysis of the quartz zones and potential follow up diamond drilling.

A general indication of the quality of the quartz on the property is provided by visual inspection in hand specimens of the colour imparted by the presence of inclusion or fracture filling material.


The silica-rich Snow White deposit is interpreted by Winter et al. (2010) to be a composite zone of quartz veining, shearing and silica flooding   Easton (2009) indicates that these types of quartz vein deposits are regionally associated with north-south trending structures cross-cutting Archean granitoids.  Additional silica-rich quartz veins have been identified elsewhere in the region in a similar geological setting including north of Espanola (Easton, 2009), and north of Massey (Leonard et al., 2007).

The 13 check samples were analyzed by both X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) at ALS Canada Ltd. The locations of samples, as shown in Figure 14.1, were spread spatially across the Main Zone outcrop exposure in both Transition Zone and within the Massive Quartz Vein lithologies.  One Control sample was included with the sample batch.

It was determined that for the ultra-high purity Snow White quartz material to be appropriately characterized for impurities, the crush samples needed to be pulverized at the ALS Vancouver facility with tungsten carbide bowls to minimize

carryover contamination.  It is recommended that future sampling programs on the Snow White project utilize a similar prep method to minimize potential contamination.

The samples were analyzed by XRF utilizing the ALS XRF26 package and by ICP-MS utilizing the ALS supertrace MS61L procedure. For XRF26, a prepared sample (0.66 g) is fused with a 12:22 lithium tetraborate – lithium metaborate flux which also includes an oxidizing agent (lithium nitrate), and then poured into a platinum mold. The resultant disk is in turn analyzed by XRF spectrometry.  The XRF analysis is determined in conjunction with a loss-on-ignition at 1000°C. The resulting data from both determinations are combined to produce a “total”.  For MS61L, a prepared sample (nominal weight 0.25g) is digested with 1.5 mL concentrated nitric and perchloric acids, followed by concentrated hydrofluoric acid. The mixture is heated at 185°C until incipient dryness, leached with 50% hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume with weak HCl. The final solution is then analyzed by ICP-MS and ICP-AES, with results corrected for spectral inter-element interferences.

The analytical results of the XRF data are tabulated in Table 1, and the ICP data is tabulated in Table 14-2.  For reference, the threshold values for impurity elements for metallurgical grade silicon metal production are shown in Table 14-3.


 Table 1 - QP Samples Main Zone, XRF Major Oxide Data

Table 2 - QP Samples Main Zone, ICP-MS Data for Selected Impurity Elements


Table 3 - Reference Impurity Values for Metallurgical Grade Silicon


ANZAPLAN (2017): dorfner ANZAPLAN Thermal stability test and ICP analysis, Bucket rock samples BRS 1 and BRS 2 from Canada, Report of laboratory test results, 211613095, for Rogue Resources Inc., November 21, 2017, 15p.

Easton, M., (2009):    Project Unit 09-004. Compilation Mapping, Pecors–Whiskey Lake Area, Southern and Superior Provinces; in Summary of Field Work and Other Activities 2009, Ontario Geological Survey, Open File Report 6240, p.10-1 to 10-21.

Easton, R.M., (2013): Precambrian geology, Pecors–Whiskey area; Ontario Geological Survey, Preliminary Map P.3775, scale 1:20 000.

Globe Metallurgical Inc, (2001): Performance Evaluation of Snow White High-Purity Quartz to Produce Commercial Silicon Metal, Supplied by Rapier Resources.  In: Mining Claims 1229647, 1231116, & 1231115, Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Assessment File (2005) 20000000953 2.31022, 17p.

Robertson, J. A., and Johnson, J. M., (1965): Deagle Township, District of Algoma; Ontario Dept. Mines, Prelim. Geol. Map No. P.317, scale l inch to 1/4 mile.  Geology 1965.

Verbina Resources Inc. (2010): Management’s Discussion and Analysis, three and six months ending March 31, 2010, posted on SEDAR May 31, 2010, 15p.

Winter, L.D.S., Rossi, A.C., and Vannoni, F., (2010): Drilling Report, Vanward Main Zone Project, Deagle Township, District of Algoma, Ontario, Prepared by Adventis Geoservices, Inc., for Verbina Resources.  Original Report November 30, 2008, Revision June 14, 2010. Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Assessment File (2010) 2.45529, 138p.

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